Attributable Causes of Cancer in France in the Year 2000 (IARC Working Group Report, No. 3)
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Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study. EPHA adds value to the work of members in the health determinants stream with its broad public health perspective. Within its activities, EPHA focuses on key risk factors of different cancer types, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption. EPHA will continue its work in the expert group and rely on the wide expertise of EPHA members working in the cancer field and on determinants of cancer which are relevant for other chronic diseases. Cancer puts a heavy burden on Europe In , 2.
Secretan B et al,]] The risks tend to increase with the amount of ethanol drunk, in the absence of any clearly defined threshold below which no effect is evident. Free dental medicine for children from disadvantaged families August 19, European Public Health Alliance.
causes of cancer in France | Annals of Oncology | Oxford Academic
You can receive it directly in your mailbox. Prevalence of exposure data was extracted from nationally representative studies in China Table 6 in Appendix 1. Tobacco smoking prevalence was abstracted from the results of a cross-sectional study in on smoking and passive smoking status in China [ 25 ]. Briefly, disease surveillance points DSPs in 30 provinces throughout the country were selected by multi-stage random sampling method.
A total of 16, valid records were included in the final analysis. Current smokers were smoking cigarettes at the time of survey. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was Data on alcohol drinking prevalence was obtained from the National Nutrition Survey of China [ 26 ],and the specific methods of this study have been described elsewhere [ 27 ]. We did not take into account the type of alcohol beer, wine, distilled spirit or drinking patterns regular vs.
Overall, the prevalence of alcohol drinking was A total of 14, persons completed the questionnaire and provided the nation-based prevalence of physical inactivity. Results showed that The CHNS covered 15, participants from 9 representative provinces 54 counties that varied in economic development, geography circumstances, public resources and health status. Body height and weight data were obtained from the physical examination records of CHNS. The estimated overall prevalence of overweight in was Prevalence data on dietary factors were also derived from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey in that was described earlier.
Dietary factors including intake of vegetable and fruit, and intake of red and processed meats, were derived from the household survey of CHNS. In our study, we categorized intake of vegetable and fruit, red and processed meats in quintiles, stratified by regions urban and rural and genders. The prevalence of dietary factors varied from urban to rural areas and between genders in China. In urban areas, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was over For fruit intake, the highest quintile was over In rural areas, the highest quintiles of these three dietary factors intake were slightly lower than those in urban areas except for the highest quintile of fruit in women.
Data on the RRs of different risk factors and risk of colorectal cancer in this study was derived from epidemiologic studies through a systematic search of publications, including: PubMed, Web of Science, websites, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure CNKI. Language was limited to English or Chinese only. The highest priority was given to those meta-analyses or large-scale cohort studies in the Chinese population. When such studies were not available, we used meta-analyses of other Asian or non-Asian populations.
Furthermore, if RRs for men and women were not available separately, we assumed the RRs for both men and women were equal. All RRs used in our study were statistically significant. RR for tobacco smoking was from a meta-analysis of 22 cohort studies in Asian and other populations [ 30 ], and RR for alcohol drinking was derived from a population-based cohort study in the Chinese population [ 31 ]. However, RRs for overweight and obesity were obtained from the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration in Asian and other populations [ 32 ], and RR for physical inactivity was from a meta-analysis included 53 studies in Asian and other populations [ 33 ].
RRs for vegetable and fruit [ 12 ] and red or processed meat intake [ 11 ] were abstracted from two large studies of meta-analyses on the dose-response association with colorectal cancer incidence. Finally, the RRs in other quintiles was divided by that in quintile 5 fruit or vegetable or in quintile 1 red or processed meat to get the final estimates. The RR in quintile 5 fruit or vegetable or in quintile 1 red or processed meat was assumed to be equal to 1. RR for smoking current vs.
For overweight and obesity, the RRs were 1. For physical inactivity, the RRs were 1. For the lowest quintile of vegetable intake, RRs were similar among urban and rural men and women 1. For the lowest quintile of fruit intake, the RRs were 1. When considering the highest intake of red and processed meat, the RRs were 1. PAF was estimated based on the RR of cancer associated with exposure to a particular risk factor and the prevalence of exposure to the risk factor in a general population P. PAFs for low intake of vegetable and fruit and high intake of red or processed meat were calculated by a shift of all to the top quintile, which is a full shift, by the following formula:.
Link between occupation and cancer
Tobacco smoking was responsible for deaths and 12, incident cases of colorectal cancer in men with a PAF of 8. The fraction of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality caused by alcohol drinking was 8. The corresponding figures were deaths and 12, incident cases in men and deaths and incident cases in women. The estimates of PAF for overweight and obesity was 4.
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
Furthermore, physical inactivity was responsible for 8. High red and processed meat intake was responsible for 8. Our study is for the first time to comprehensively estimate the burden of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality attributable to the known risk factors in China.
Overall, we estimated that Our results showed that PAFs of smoking and alcohol drinking were 8. Low vegetable intake was responsible for the most incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer for both genders, with PAFs for colorectal cancer in our study were higher than the corresponding estimates in the worldwide study [ 37 ], French study [ 14 ], and Japan study [ 17 ], but a little lower than that in the UK study [ 15 ].
The discrepancy of PAFs in these studies could be explained by the selected risk factors, source of data on the prevalence and RR, and genetic diversity.
For instance, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking among women are much lower in China compared with other Asian such as Japan and European populations such as France. Tobacco smoking, as a cause of cancer, is common in China. Zheng and his colleagues examined the burden of tobacco smoking-related deaths in Asia [ 38 ], which indicated that 3.
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Reasons for the discrepancy of PAF may be explained by the different sources of prevalence and RR in these studies. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers, including colorectal cancer. A previous study in China has evaluated the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in and showed that PAFs of colorectal cancer were 2. The increased trend of PAFs with years was observed in her study, which may explain the much higher PAFs in our estimates calculated based on the increased prevalence of drinking habits.
A sensitivity analysis for estimating PAF using the prevalence in did not alter our results, which remained also robust with respect to different lag-time. Few studies can be available for PAF of colorectal cancer attributable to overweight and obesity and physical inactivity in China.
Only one similar study was available in China [ 20 ], and showed that overweight and obesity were responsible for 0. Our study indicated that overweight and obesity caused 4. The corresponding PAFs in our study were 8. The difference for PAF could be explained by the source of prevalence of physical inactivity. Many previous studies have reported the combined effect of both fruit and vegetable intake on cancer burden, but no studied can be available for the effect of red and processed meat on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality.
To our knowledge, our study was for the first time to estimate the PAF for high red and processed meat intake in China. All the selected dietary factors were responsible for The strengths of our study included first systematic assessment of colorectal cancer causes, prevalence data from nationally representative studies, and new national data on colorectal cancer incident cases and deaths.
However, our results have several limitations. First, several other known risk factors of colorectal cancer exist but have not been included in our study. For example, further emerging evidence suggests that infection with Helicobacter pylori , Fuso bacterium species, and other potential infectious agents might be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer [ 39 , 40 , 41 ], but their causal relationships with colorectal cancer risk are unclear. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have consistently shown an inverse association between serum vitamin D concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer, but whether and to what extent this association is causal needs to be established [ 42 ].
Even the selected risk factors in our study can also be classified into more specific groups, for example, smokers can be divided into former smokers and current smokers; type of alcohol drinking can be divided into beer, spirit and others, which can also affect our estimates.
Attributable causes of colorectal cancer in China
Therefore, future studies are still needed to evaluate the contribution of these risk factors and others to the burden of colorectal cancer in China. Acute and short-term toxic effects of conventionally fractionated vs hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation: a randomized clinical trial. Differences in the acute toxic effects of breast radiotherapy by fractionation schedule: comparative analysis of physician-assessed and patient-reported outcomes in a large multicenter cohort.
Post-operative stereotactic radiosurgery versus observation for completely resected brain metastases: a single-centre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol ;—8.
IARC Working Group Report Volume 3
Adjuvant chemotherapy buided by a gene expression assay in breast cancer. Morisset J.
Somatostatin: one of the rare multifunctional inhibitors of mammalian species. Pancreas ;— Phase 3 trial of Lu-Dotatate for midgut neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol ;36 suppl: abstr Advances in treatment formulations for acute myeloid leukemia. Drug Discov Today Jun 2.