Human Leukemias: Cytochemical and Ultrastructural Techniques in Diagnosis and Research

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As such, it is often used for identification, localization as well as the distribution of proteins, antigens and a number of other macromolecules.


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Although it is more similar to the conventional immunofluorescence techniques used in microscopy, this technique provides an added dimension compared to the fluorescence assays given that it makes it possible to clearly observe the localization and distribution of macromolecules at ultrastructural level and at high magnifications and high resolution. Cytochemistry Immunogold Labeling Techniques.

Pre-Embedding Immunogold Labeling.

This technique is largely used for detecting proteins, antigens as well as various other macromolecules. In particular, it is used for detecting these molecules when they are located on the surface of the cell or any other biological specimen. On the other hand, it has proved to be an important technique for other specimen that may be ultra-thin sectioned. Here, it is largely used to examine the exterior and interior of such specimen. Post-Embedding Labeling. Post-Embedding Labeling is the technique that is only used to detect proteins, antigens and various other macromolecules located in the interior regions of the specimen of interest.

Negative Stain Immunogold Labeling Technique - This technique is used for the purposes of detecting proteins, antigens or other macromolecules that may be on the surface or the interior of biological specimen.

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Immunogold labeling is a powerful technique, making it one of the few or only techniques that can be used to probe cells untrastructurally. This is largely due to the fact that the process is devised to attach gold probes to secondary antibodies and consequently to primary antibody that help reveal the presence of antigen.

Some of the advantages of immunogold techniques include:. Cytochemical stains are mostly used in hematopathology for such purposes as:. Basically, the process involves a reaction between the enzyme being used and the substrate to produce a given color. With regards to cytochemical stains, there are both enzymatic and non-enzymatic stains.

Myeloperoxidase MPO. This is an enzyme that is located in the granules of both the myeloid and monocytic cells. As a stain, it is positive in cells of granulocyte series.

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Its activity increases with the maturation of myeloid cells while the immature myeloid cells tend to have very little to no staining. This stain works by splitting the hydrogen peroxide in the presence of chromogenic electoron donor, which results in the formation of an insoluble product. Nonspecific Esterase.

Leukemia diagnosis - Hematologic System Diseases - NCLEX-RN - Khan Academy

This enzyme e. In myeloid and lymphoid cells, it is present in little amounts. It is typically used for the purposes of identifying monocytes. As a result, lymphocytes will often stain focally while the myeloid cells stain very weakly. This type of stain is largely used for the purposes of diagnosing acute myelogenous leukemia with monocytic differentiation.

This stain is mostly used for the purposes of demonstrating glycogen and related mucopolysaccharides. When used for Myeloid or monocytic blasts, the outcome is often weakly positive or negative. However, it is positive in erythroid population in erythroblastic leukemias. Sudan Black B.

Classification of Acute Leukemia

This is a lipophilic dye that is typically used for the purposes of staining intracellular phospholipids and other lipids. It functions by irreversibly binding to an unidentified granule in granulocytes or eosiphils. Return from Cytochemistry to Cell Biology. Return to MicroscopeMaster Home. Fruehauf, A.

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Pitkus, J. Dengler, S. Kraeker Cytochemical staining. Meir Wilchek, Bayer A. Edward and Ehud Skutelsky Affinity cytochemistry. Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon. Scientific understanding changes over time. MicroscopeMaster is not liable for your results or any personal issues resulting from performing the experiment. The MicroscopeMaster website is for educational purposes only.

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